Aim of Case Study
This Case Study aims to map the current state of affairs in CDW in Cyprus, highlighting the consequences of non proper management, and new important developments that have been incorporated in the international, and European legislative agenda.
The management of CDW(Construction, and Demolition waste) in Cyprus involves various parties from the public, and private sectors. All the CDW activity in Cyprus is overseen by the Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development, and Environment. Legally, CDW in the Republic of Cyprus follows two main routes: CDW is either collected, and transported to licensed processing plants or, alternatively, processed on-site.. For the collection/transport network CDW, there are currently 479 carriers, who are licensed to accept, and handle construction waste, and whose license is applicable for only a single waste code as specified in the European List of Waste, Several of these carriers are equipped with mobile crushers, and sieves for processing of CDWs on site.There are currently six licensed processing plants for CDW operating in Cyrus. These units are equipped with CDW reception stations for weight control of the dump trucks, and recording, and initial inspection of the CDWs. Furthermore, they have temporary storage areas, and presorting areas. They have the technical capabilities for smashing, crushing, manual, and magnetic separation, and sieving. They also have storage areas for recycled aggregates/final products. In addition, they operate sanitary landfills for any remaining solid waste resulting from the operations. The recycled end products from the plant operations are sold back to authorized sellers of construction materials. To ensure compliance with legislation, producers of CDW (contractors etc) are required to register or maintain CDW Management Systems.
CDW Management Parties, and Responsibilities:
-Owner’s responsibility: The project owner (construction, and demolition) has the full responsibility for managing the produced CDW, and needs prior to the start of any project, to prepare, and maintain a comprehensive management plan within the construction site, which it must include: a) The name, and address of the owner of the project, b) project description, timetables, and a copy of the title deed/lease of land within which will run the project, c) quantification per item that falls within the category of volume or weight of CDW estimated to be produced during the implementation of the technical work or construction, d) management methods to be applied for CDW, e) contracts with waste managers, and f)to lodge a bank guarantee to the competent authority to ensure fulfillment of obligations. No work can start unless an integrated management plan to perform the project cannot start before the preparation of the integrated management plan or the authorization of the management form of CDW in the case where the total mixed, compressed material CDW by volume (by volume) is up to 25 cubic meters
-CDW Contractor’s Responsibility: According to legislation, producers of CDW in the construction sector (construction works contractors, demolishers, etc.) are obliged to either be a member of a collective CDW Management Systems (an organization with many participants) or to maintain, and operate a licensed CDW Management System (single entity organization). Contractors’ obligations in more detail are as follows: Prepare an Integrated Management Plan for CDW, CDW management costs, quantities, storage period, the collection, and transfer of CDW to a licensed trustee, the rationale behind the management of CDW, and management method, to achieve a high level of material recovery, recycling, and reuse;, and to achieve a high degree of cooperation between all actors involved in the management of CDW). Additionally, they are obliged to either be a member of an authorized collective CDW Management Systems (an organization with many participants) or to maintain, and operate an individual licensed CDW Management System (single entity organization). Payment of the guarantee to ensure fulfillment of its obligations is done through the system. The CDW individual or collective management system operator must prepare, and submit a detailed annual report comprising a technical, and financial party by 30 April each year for the previous year. The Secretary keeps a register of CDW producers.
CDW Management Systems :
The CDW Management Systems are non-for-profit private entities owned by one or more contractors. CDW management systems are responsible to: 1) ensuring the compliance of their members with the current Legislation 2) collecting, and maintaining data records regarding CDW quantities, their collection, transport, disposal, and recycling of waste, and report to the Competent Authority 3) promoting waste hierarchy, and achievement of recycling objectives 4) rational management of CDW 5) achievement of: high-level recovery materials, their recycling, and reuse 6) achievement high degree cooperation of all of the involved stakeholders
Barriers to sustainable management of CDW in Cyprus:
In this section, we identify several barriers to sustainable management of CDW in Cyprus. These are the following: -The regulations for CDW are still in a transition phase. -There is no strict control, and enforcement of Environmental policy on the precautionary principle, the polluter pays principle, and the principle of co-operation thus involved (producers, distributors, consumers, disposal, and recycling companies, as well as government offices) -Manufacturers, and distributors most likely are not designing their products in such a way as to minimize the amount of waste produced during manufacturing and, finally, to facilitate an ecological removal of those components of the waste which can no longer be reused. -The absence of a policy requiring designers, builders, and contractors to use an appropriate percentage of recycled CDW materials -Underemployment of environmental inspectors/low organizational capacity for implementing, and enforcing the law. Delays in the administration of fines or non-conviction of CDW management rules violators -• The general mentality in the construction sector (and of the general public in Cyprus) is that CDW is not considered a waste stream that requires immediate attention, and treatment. There is the misperception that CDW can be disposed somewhere, and left there since its inert nature makes it harmless for human health, and the environment -Contractors/owners prefer to avoid the cost of CDW management so they either illegally discharge or reuse on site or prefer to pay the penalties for not complying with the directives, and regulations that force them to manage their produced wastes which in most of the cases are much lower than the cost of managing their produced waste -The high cost of transport, and disposal in collection areas-General lack of skills, and knowledge to organise effective systems of CDW management -• Lack of knowledge, and understanding by agents, and all agents involved in the construction industry of the law on how to prevent CDW - Lack of knowledge of the construction industry professionals regarding the implementation of the CDW legislation - No market/no demand for recycled CDW, natural materials are always preferred over recycled materials in the construction works -No pull effect from market conditions - Lack of incentives for recycling - • Limited awareness on the issue Publicity - information - knowledge from users, and consumers/Conservative determinations, and clarifications on the responsibility of all those involved in product management, such as material suppliers, producers, importers, traders, distributors, public authorities, local authorities, institutes, and institutions, etc -There is no official way of estimating the volume of CDW re-used this way on site - Owners/contractors might consider the gate fee for construction, and demolition at the treatment units in Cyprus expensive.
highlighting the consequences of non-proper management
introducing new important developments incorporated in the international, and European legislative agenda.
The growing world population puts enormous stress on the environment, and natural resources. The intense activities of the construction sector in Europe have been generating huge amounts of construction, and demolition waste (CDW). Our myopic focus on producing, and consuming as cheaply as possible has created a linear economy in which objects are briefly used, and discarded as waste. CDW is considered one of the heaviest, and most voluminous waste streams generated in the EU.
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